Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The term morality, according to Shaffer (1993) means Ã¢â¬Å"a set of principles or ideals that help the individual to distinguish right from wrong and to act on this distinction. Morality is important to society, as it would not function effectively unless there is some agreement of what is right and wrong. There are many underlying processes and environmental factors, which limit or promote social, cognitive and moral development in children. In modern society, television could be considered to be one of the major influences on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s moral development. There are three approaches to moral development; the cognitive approach, the psychodynamic approach and the social learning theory. The Cognitive-Developmental approach of Piaget and Kohlberg studies how children become more able to reason morally and make moral judgements, whereas the FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychodynamic approach is more concerned with the development of the conscience and moral feelings such as guilt and anxiety. The social learning theory of Bandura and Mischel investigates the development of moral behaviour and how role models in the family, society and the media, influence it. The theory I am going to discuss is PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Cognitive-Developmental Approach. His theory of moral development is concerned with how the childÃ¢â¬â¢s moral knowledge and understanding change with age. Piaget saw morality as any system of rules, which governs interaction between people. The methods of investigation he used to develop his theories were, he looked at the way children imposed rules in their games. He used games to study the development of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s moral development as he thought that by studying rules in the context of a game, he could study the childÃ¢â¬â¢s spontaneous though directly. He also, assessed changes in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s moral judgements by telling hypothetical stories about children who lied, stole or broke something. When using hypothetical stories, Piaget was generally more interested in the reasons why the children give the answers they did and not particularly the answers. Piaget identifies stages of moral development just as he identified stages with cognitive development. His theories of the way children think and their moral reasoning goes through a series of stages, as they are adapting to the world, these are also known as the processes of accommodation and assimilation. He believed that as childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning about the world changes when they grow older and gain more experience, so does their reasoning about morality. Their ability to think about the world in more complex ways is what causes them to move on from one stage to the next. This is known as cognitive development. Piaget stated that infants donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand much about morality until they are about three or four years of age. Their development divides into two main stages after infancy. His stages of moral development are: Pre Moral Stage (up to three or four years) Children donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand about rules, and so they donÃ¢â¬â¢t make moral judgements Stage of Heteronomous Morality (aged three Ã¢â¬â six years) Children at this stage think rules are absolute and unchangeable, and the goodness and badness of an action is judged largely on the basis of its consequences rather than by taking intent into account. Stage of Autonomous Morality (from around six or seven) Children at this stage now see rules as more changeable and intentions are taken into account. Children also start to believe that it is possible to break rules and get away with it, whereas earlier they tended to think they will always be found out and possibly punished. Researchers from Europe and America have tested some of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theories and have concluded that distinct stages of development do seem to exist however, other research found that children do not see all rules as being equally important as Piaget thought they did. Heteronomous Morality, also known as moral realism, means when the child is subject to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s laws or rules. Children think that rules must be obeyed no matter what the circumstances. A child at this stage will think that rules are only made by authority figures, such as, parents and teachers. Two other features that are displayed in moral reasoning at this stage are, first they expect bad behaviour to be punished in some way, they believe that the punishment should be expiatory Ã¢â¬â the wrongdoer must make amends for the crime by paying with some kind of suffering. They have the view that the amount of punishment should match the badness of the behaviour. Secondly, if the bad behaviour goes undetected then the child believes in immanent justice Ã¢â¬â where any misfortune occurring after the bad behaviour can be seen as a punishment. For example, if a child tells a lie and gets away with it, then later trips and falls, the younger child could consider this as a punis hment. In general, they believe punishment should be fair and that wrongdoing will always be punished in some way. Autonomous Morality, which means when the child is subject to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own laws and rules. It involves moral relativism whereby the child comes to realise that rules evolve from social relationships. Due to the child Ã¢â¬ËdecentringÃ¢â¬â¢ and their developed ability to think more flexibly about moral issues, they have began to realise it is important to take other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions into account. At this stage a child will have developed the understanding that sometimes rules of morality can be broken in certain reasonable circumstances. They believe in reciprocal punishment, whereby the punishment should fit the crime. For example, if a child takes another childÃ¢â¬â¢s sweets, the first child should be deprived of their sweets or should make it up to the victim in some other way. This is known as the principle of reciprocity. Children will also have learnt at this stage that wrongdoers often avoid punishment, diminishing any belief in immanent justice. They see punishment as a method of making the offender understand the nature of the crime and that punishment is also a deterrent. The move from heteronomous morality to autonomous morality is influenced by two factors. Children around the age of seven begin to move on from the pre operational stage of an illogical and an egocentric way of thinking to more logical and flexible way of thinking, in the operational stage. Their growing awareness that other people have different views allows them to develop more mature moral reasoning. However, moral development lags at least one to two years behind cognitive development because the whole process depends on the cognitive changes occurring first. Kohlberg expanded Piaget's theory to form a theory that also explained the development of moral reasoning. While Piaget described a two-stage process of moral development, KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s theory outlined six stages within three different levels. Kohlberg extended PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, proposing that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan. A study by Colby et al (1983) criticised PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption that children of ten and eleven years old had reached an adult level of moral reasoning. Piaget was always focusing on what an average child was capable of achieving so he neglected the idea of great variations between the individual childÃ¢â¬â¢s ways of thinking. In general, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive theory has been criticised for the methods of investigation not being as precise as they could have been. Methods he used were seen as complicated, leading critics to think he under estimated younger childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities of what they could and could not do. This was because later research went on to conclude that children could actually take other motives into consideration, when they understood what motives were involved. Despite criticism, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s work is still regarded as a revolutionary step forward in the way we understand how children think. It has led to a much more realistic ways of understanding childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s moral development. Many attempts to test PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theories from researchers around the world have resulted in acceptance that some of his views and methods do appear to exist.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
A Secondary Source The Science of Electricity How Electricity is Generated/Made The Transformer Ã¢â¬â Moving Electricity Measuring Electricity energy calculator links page recent statistics A SECONDARY SOURCE Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge. It is a secondary energy source which means that we get it from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources. The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable, but electricity itself is neither renewable or non-renewable. Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. Many cities and towns were built alongside waterfalls (a primary source of mechanical energy) that turned water wheels to perform work. Before electricity generation began over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood-burning or coal-burning stoves. Beginning with Benjamin Franklin's experiment with a kite one stormy night in Philadelphia, the principles of electricity gradually became understood. Thomas Edison helped change everyone's life Ã¢â¬â he perfected his invention Ã¢â¬â the electric light bulb. Prior to 1879, direct current (DC) electricity had been used in arc lights for outdoor lighting. In the late-1800s, Nikola Tesla pioneered the generation, transmission, and use of alternating current (AC) electricity, which can be transmitted over much greater distances than direct current. Tesla's inventions used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes and to power industrial machines. Despite its great importance in our daily lives, most of us rarely stop to think what life would be like without electricity. Yet like air and water, we tend to take electricity for granted. Everyday, we use electricity to do many jobs for us Ã¢â¬â from lighting and heating/cooling our homes, to powering our televisions and computers. Electricity is a controllable and convenient form of energy used in the applications of heat, light and power. THE SCIENCE OF ELECTRICITY developed by the National Energy Education Development Project In order to understand how electric charge moves from one atom to another, we need to know something about atoms. Everything in the universe is made of atomsÃ¢â¬âevery star, every tree, every animal. The human body is made of atoms. Air and water are, too. Atoms are the building blocks of the universe. Atoms are so small that millions of them would fit on the head of a pin. Atoms are made of even smaller particles. The center of an atom is called the nucleus. It is made of particles called protons and neutrons. The protons and neutrons are very small, but electrons are much, much smaller. Electrons spin around the nucleus in shells a great distance from the nucleus. If the nucleus were the size of a tennis ball, the atom would be the size of the Empire State Building. Atoms are mostly empty space. If you could see an atom, it would look a little like a tiny center of balls surrounded by giant invisible bubbles (or shells). The electrons would be on the surface of the bubbles, constantly spinning and moving to stay as far away from each other as possible. Electrons are held in their shells by an electrical force. The protons and electrons of an atom are attracted to each other. They both carry an electrical charge. An electrical charge is a force within the particle. Protons have a positive charge (+) and electrons have a negative charge (-). The positive charge of the protons is equal to the negative charge of the electrons. Opposite charges attract each other. When an atom is in balance, it has an equal number of protons and electrons. The neutrons carry no charge and their number can vary. The number of protons in an atom determines the kind of atom, or element, it is. An element is a substance in which all of the atoms are identical (the Periodic Table shows all the known elements). Every atom of hydrogen, for example, has one proton and one electron, with no neutrons. Every atom of carbon has six protons, six electrons, and six neutrons. The number of protons determines which element it is. Electrons usually remain a constant distance from the nucleus in precise shells. The shell closest to the nucleus can hold two electrons. The next shell can hold up to eight. The outer shells cans hold even more. Some atoms with many protons can have as many as seven shells with electrons in them. The electrons in the shells closest to the nucleus have a strong force of attraction to the protons. Sometimes, the electrons in the outermost shells do not. These electrons can be pushed out of their orbits. Applying a force can make them move from one atom to another. These moving electrons are electricity. STATIC ELECTRICITY Electricity has been moving in the world forever. Lightning is a form of electricity. It is electrons moving from one cloud to another or jumping from a cloud to the ground. Have you ever felt a shock when you touched an object after walking across a carpet? A stream of electrons jumped to you from that object. This is called static electricity. Have you ever made your hair stand straight up by rubbing a balloon on it? If so, you rubbed some electrons off the balloon. The electrons moved into your hair from the balloon. They tried to get far away from each other by moving to the ends of your hair. They pushed against each other and made your hair moveÃ¢â¬âthey repelled each other. Just as opposite charges attract each other, like charges repel each other. MAGNETS AND ELECTRICITY The spinning of the electrons around the nucleus of an atom creates a tiny magnetic field. Most objects are not magnetic because the atoms are arranged so that the electrons spin in different, random directions, and cancel out each other. Magnets are different; the molecules in magnets are arranged so that the electrons spin in the same direction. This arrangement of atoms creates two poles in a magnet, a Northseeking pole and a South-seeking pole. Bar Magnet A magnet is labeled with North (N) and South (S) poles. The magnetic force in a magnet flows from the North pole to the South pole. This creates a magnetic field around a magnet. Have you ever held two magnets close to each other? They donÃ¢â¬â¢t act like most objects. If you try to push the South poles together, they repel each other. Two North poles also repel each other. Turn one magnet around and the North (N) and the South (S) poles are attracted to each other. The magnets come together with a strong force. Just like protons and electrons, opposites attract. These special properties of magnets can be used to make electricity. Moving magnetic fields can pull and push electrons. Some metals, like copper have electrons that are loosely held. They can be pushed from their shells by moving magnets. Magnets and wire are used together in electric generators. BATTERIES PRODUCE ELECTRICITY A battery produces electricity using two different metals in a chemical solution. A chemical reaction between the metals and the chemicals frees more electrons in one metal than in the other. One end of the battery is attached to one of the metals; the other end is attached to the other metal. The end that frees more electrons develops a positive charge and the other end develops a negative charge. If a wire is attached from one end of the battery to the other, electrons flow through the wire to balance the electrical charge. A load is a device that does work or performs a job. If a loadÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âsuch as a lightbulbÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âis placed along the wire, the electricity can do work as it flows through the wire. In the picture above, electrons flow from the negative end of the battery through the wire to the lightbulb. The electricity flows through the wire in the lightbulb and back to the battery. ELECTRICITY TRAVELS IN CIRCUITS Electricity travels in closed loops, or circuits (from the word circle). It must have a complete path before the electrons can move. If a circuit is open, the electrons cannot flow. When we flip on a light switch, we close a circuit. The electricity flows from the electric wire through the light and back into the wire. When we flip the switch off, we open the circuit. No electricity flows to the light. When we turn a light switch on, electricity flows through a tiny wire in the bulb. The wire gets very hot. It makes the gas in the bulb glow. When the bulb burns out, the tiny wire has broken. The path through the bulb is gone. When we turn on the TV, electricity flows through wires inside the set, producing pictures and sound. Sometimes electricity runs motorsÃ¢â¬âin washers or mixers. Electricity does a lot of work for us. We use it many times each day. HOW ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. The process is based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity. In 1831, Faraday discovered that when a magnet is moved inside a coil of wire, electrical current flows in the wire. A typical generator at a power plant uses an electromagnetÃ¢â¬âa magnet produced by electricityÃ¢â¬ânot a traditional magnet. The generator has a series of insulated coils of wire that form a stationary cylinder. This cylinder surrounds a rotary electromagnetic shaft. When the electromagnetic shaft rotates, it induces a small electric current in each section of the wire coil. Each section of the wire becomes a small, separate electric conductor. The small currents of individual sections are added together to form one large current. This current is the electric power that is transmitted from the power company to the consumer. An electric utility power station uses either a turbine, engine, water wheel, or other similar machine to drive an electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or chemical energy to generate electricity. Steam turbines, internalcombustion engines, gas combustion turbines, water turbines, and wind turbines are the most common methods to generate electricity. Most power plants are about 35 percent efficient. That means that for every 100 units of energy that go into a plant, only 35 units are converted to usable electrical energy. Most of the electricity in the United States is produced in steam turbines. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) to mechanical energy. Steam turbines have a series of blades mounted on a shaft against which steam is forced, thus rotating the shaft connected to the generator. In a fossil-fueled steam turbine, the fuel is burned in a furnace to heat water in a boiler to produce steam. Coal, petroleum (oil), and natural gas are burned in large furnaces to heat water to make steam that in turn pushes on the blades of a turbine. Did you know that most electricity generated in the United State comes from burning coal? In 2007, nearly half (48. 5%) of the country's 4. 1 trillion kilowatthours of electricity used coal as its source of energy. Natural gas, in addition to being burned to heat water for steam, can also be burned to produce hot combustion gases that pass directly through a turbine, spinning the blades of the turbine to generate electricity. Gas turbines are commonly used when electricity utility usage is in high demand. In 2007, 21. 6% of the nation's electricity was fueled by natural gas. Petroleum can also be used to make steam to turn a turbine. Residual fuel oil, a product refined from crude oil, is often the petroleum product used in electric plants that use petroleum to make steam. Petroleum was used to generate about two percent (2%) of all electricity generated in U. S. electricity plants in 2007. Nuclear power is a method in which steam is produced by heating water through a process called nuclear fission. In a nuclear power plant, a reactor contains a core of nuclear fuel, primarily enriched uranium. When atoms of uranium fuel are hit by neutrons they fission (split), releasing heat and more neutrons. Under controlled conditions, these other neutrons can strike more uranium atoms, splitting more atoms, and so on. Thereby, continuous fission can take place, forming a chain reaction releasing heat. The heat is used to turn water into steam, that, in turn, spins a turbine that generates electricity. Nuclear power was used to generate 19. 4% of all the country's electricity in 2007. Hydropower, the source for 5. % of U. S. electricity generation in 2007, is a process in which flowing water is used to spin a turbine connected to a generator. There are two basic types of hydroelectric systems that produce electricity. In the first system, flowing water accumulates in reservoirs created by the use of dams. The water falls through a pipe called a penstock and applies pressure against the turb ine blades to drive the generator to produce electricity. In the second system, called run-of-river, the force of the river current (rather than falling water) applies pressure to the turbine blades to produce electricity. Geothermal power comes from heat energy buried beneath the surface of the earth. In some areas of the country, enough heat rises close to the surface of the earth to heat underground water into steam, which can be tapped for use at steam-turbine plants. This energy source generated less than 1% of the electricity in the country in 2007. Solar power is derived from the energy of the sun. However, the sun's energy is not available full-time and it is widely scattered. The processes used to produce electricity using the sun's energy have historically been more expensive than using conventional fossil fuels. Photovoltaic conversion generates electric power directly from the light of the sun in a photovoltaic (solar) cell. Solar-thermal electric generators use the radiant energy from the sun to produce steam to drive turbines. In 2007, less than 1% of the nation's electricity was based on solar power. Wind power is derived from the conversion of the energy contained in wind into electricity. Wind power, less than 1% of the nation's electricity in 2007, is a rapidly growing source of electricity. A wind turbine is similar to a typical wind mill. Biomass includes wood, municipal solid waste (garbage), and agricultural waste, such as corn cobs and wheat straw. These are some other energy sources for producing electricity. These sources replace fossil fuels in the boiler. The combustion of wood and waste creates steam that is typically used in conventional steam-electric plants. Biomass accounts for about 1% of the electricity generated in the United States. THE TRANSFORMER Ã¢â¬â MOVING ELECTRICITY To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances, William Stanley developed a device called a transformer. The transformer allowed electricity to be efficiently transmitted over long distances. This made it possible to supply electricity to homes and businesses located far from the electric generating plant. The electricity produced by a generator travels along cables to a transformer, which changes electricity from low voltage to high voltage. Electricity can be moved long distances more efficiently using high voltage. Transmission lines are used to carry the electricity to a substation. Substations have transformers that change the high voltage electricity into lower voltage electricity. From the substation, distribution lines carry the electricity to homes, offices and factories, which require low voltage electricity. MEASURING ELECTRICITY Electricity is measured in units of power called watts. It was named to honor James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. One watt is a very small amount of power. It would require nearly 750 watts to equal one horsepower. A kilowatt represents 1,000 watts. A kilowatthour (kWh) is equal to the energy of 1,000 watts working for one hour. The amount of electricity a power plant generates or a customer uses over a period of time is measured in kilowatthours (kWh). Kilowatthours are determined by multiplying the number of kW's required by the number of hours of use. For example, if you use a 40-watt light bulb 5 hours a day, you have used 200 watthours, or 0. 2 kilowatthours, of electrical energy. See our Energy Calculator section to learn more about converting units. Last Revised: May 2009 Sources: Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2007, August 2008 . The National Energy Education Development Project, Intermediate Energy Infobook, 2007.
Cox and Beale (1997 cited Harvey and Allard 2005) define diversity as a group of people in a social system that has different group ties. On the other hand, Thomas (1999 cited Harvey and Allard 2005:p3) defines diversity including not only differences but also similarities, indicating that diversity is Ã¢â¬Å"individuals who are different in some ways and similar in othersÃ¢â¬ .As it was mentioned before, diversity in a workforce includes employees with a variety of backgrounds in terms of race, gender, education, sexual orientation among others. This study will be focused on the understanding of a cultural diverse workforce with the aim of examining its influences on management styles.For this, it is necessary to point out some important definitions and topics that are relevant to management style in an international and heterogeneous business environment to motivate employees. Hofstede, Trompenaars and Hall & Hall are three of the most important and significant contributors in wh at culture and workplace differences regard (Mullins, 2005).General Overview and History of the TopicThe term managing diversity is nowadays becoming more important to organisations, not only because they are interested in diverse groups or they are up to date with the Equal Opportunities legislation and policies, but because they are facing important challenges related to the management and development within a diverse workforce in order to survive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global marketplace (Edwards, 1991 cited Henderson 1994).Ten years ago, the majority of organisations did not think about diversity in the workplace with the intention of having benefit from it. Today, a vast percentage of organisations take advantage of diversity initiatives to enhance organisational performance and most important, they are committed to it (Berrios, 2003 cited Liberman, 2003).According to Mor Barak (2005), managing diversity is basically to bring together employees from different backgrounds. However, t his definition does not take into account the influence that it might have on management behaviours.According to Harvey and Allard (2005), diversity can affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions in the workplace since it requires changes not only in the way people interact within each other, but also changes in the functionality of the organization, hence in the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ performance.Rationale For The StudyManaging diversity is a reality that all Multinationals and International companies are facing. Most organisations nowadays are adapting programmes to manage a culturally diverse workforce in order to fulfil their objectives and gain place in the global competitive marketplace, making the most of its employees potential.Globalisation is one of the reasons workers are moving across borders, increasing the heterogeneity of organisations and development of cross-cultural interaction in order to enhance alliances that go beyond differences such as race, gender, and others (Harris et al, 2004).Not going much further, the European Union is the most important phenomenon of cultural diversity that has happened in the last 20 years. With 25 different countries as members where all of them has different cultures, the EU has faced the challenges that globalisation has brought in order to reach common objectives such as encouraging innovation and business investment through Union identity and national diversity (European Union, 2006).In the early 21st century, organisations have been through important changes related to this trend of globalisation where not only factors such as international competitive pressure and business activities have taken place, but also the diversity of human capital from all around the world where cross-cultural interaction has been in expansion (Mullins, 2005).Therefore, it is important that these companies identify their strategies when managing cultural differences in order to have the right opportunities to gain competitive advantage (Sch neider and Barsoux, 2003).Nevertheless, there are also some risks than can bring difference of cultures in the workplace or business activities; consequently, it is vital that organisations understand that different cultures execute procedures differently (Pooley, 2005; Adler, 1983 cited Miroshnik, 2002).Furthermore, and being more specific, the management of these ethnically diverse workforce has been on the spot of many authors. As Tayeb (1996; p180-181) says Ã¢â¬Å"the first step in the management of a diverse workforce is to recognise and value such diversityÃ¢â¬ , then he argues that Ã¢â¬Å"once the diversity is recognised, the next step is to ensure that it is effectively utilised and handledÃ¢â¬ .In this case, utilising those differences contributes to an effective management, thus to bring opportunities for organisational learning and innovation creating competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Schneider and Bardoux, 2003; Mor Barak, 2005).To gain this, managers must have the needed skills to manage a multicultural workforce, this includes, having the ability to recognise and accept cultural differences between their workers as well as coordination, cooperation and communications (Lane et al, 1997; Ravlin et al cited Earley and Singh, 2000).Significance and the Importance of the StudyManaging culturally diverse workforce is nowadays a challenge for international managers. On one hand, diversity represents both differences and similarities that exists on individuals and which make them be unique from one to another (Buelens et al, 2002); and on the other hand Parekh (2000) defines culture as Ã¢â¬Å"a system of beliefs and practices in terms of which a group of human beings understand, regulate and structure their individual and collective livesÃ¢â¬ .Thus, cultural diversity is a variety of cultural differences that requires awareness, understanding and acceptance of those differences by managers, making the most of them in order to gain po sitive outcomes (Scarborough, 2001; Littrell, 2002; Harris et al, 2004; Smith and Peterson, 2005).Cultural differences might have some influences in the way managers manage and motivate their culturally diverse team, and those ways or styles that are carried out in one culture are difficult to be implemented in another due to the difference of traditions, ways of doing things and values of that culture (Hofstede cited Evans et al cited Jackson, 1995).Therefore, further investigation is recommended to be developed to minimise cultural shock in management which could affect business performance. However, this study has been done to offer an up-to-date source of information about multicultural workforce and its influences on management style to motivate employees, which is going to be executed through secondary research.Hence, factors such as cultural diversity and management style should be analyzed in-depth in order to comprehend what may constrain managers of any multinational organ isation to adjust strategies to maintain the business addressed to its objectives.In this case, there have been other studies more related to the influence or impact of organisational and national culture on management styles and although managing diversity is a topic that has been researched for various authors, it can be said that managing and motivating a culturally diverse workforce is a relative new approach.Therefore, the purpose is to do academic research by studying the related existing literature reviews to analyse and understand the influence of a multicultural workforce in the management styles.Finally, a secondary aim of this research is to encourage people to take similar investigation so as to offer useful up-to-date sources that can help both organisations and researchers to acknowledge what is happening in international business and what forces are influencing the changes within organisations. A study to determine how managers and leaders can motivate a multicultural staff Cox and Beale (1997 cited Harvey and Allard 2005) define diversity as a group of people in a social system that has different group ties. On the other hand, Thomas (1999 cited Harvey and Allard 2005:p3) defines diversity including not only differences but also similarities, indicating that diversity is Ã¢â¬Å"individuals who are different in some ways and similar in othersÃ¢â¬ .As it was mentioned before, diversity in a workforce includes employees with a variety of backgrounds in terms of race, gender, education, sexual orientation among others.This study will be focused on the understanding of a cultural diverse workforce with the aim of examining its influences on management styles.Ã For this, it is necessary to point out some important definitions and topics that are relevant to management style in an international and heterogeneous business environment to motivate employees.Hofstede, Trompenaars and Hall & Hall are three of the most important and significant contributors in what culture and workplace differences regard (Mullins, 2005).a)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã General Overview and History of the TopicThe term managing diversity is nowadays becoming more important to organisations, not only because they are interested in diverse groups or they are up to date with the Equal Opportunities legislation and policies, but because they are facing important challenges related to the management and development within a diverse workforce in order to survive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global marketplace (Edwards, 1991 cited Henderson 1994).Ten years ago, the majority of organisations did not think about diversity in the workplace with the intention of having benefit from it. Today, a vast percentage of organisations take advantage of diversity initiatives to enhance organisational performance and most important, they are committed to it (Berrios, 2003 cited Liberman, 2003).According to Mor Barak (2005), managing diversity is basically to bring together employees from differe nt backgrounds. However, this definition does not take into account the influence that it might have on management behaviours.According to Harvey and Allard (2005), diversity can affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions in the workplace since it requires changes not only in the way people interact within each other, but also changes in the functionality of the organization, hence in the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ performance.b)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Rationale For The StudyManaging diversity is a reality that all Multinationals and International companies are facing. Most organisations nowadays are adapting programmes to manage a culturally diverse workforce in order to fulfil their objectives and gain place in the global competitive marketplace, making the most of its employees potential.Globalisation is one of the reasons workers are moving across borders, increasing the heterogeneity of organisations and development of cross-cultural interaction in order to enhance alliances that go beyond differe nces such as race, gender, and others (Harris et al, 2004).Not going much further, the European Union is the most important phenomenon of cultural diversity that has happened in the last 20 years. With 25 different countries as members where all of them has different cultures, the EU has faced the challenges that globalisation has brought in order to reach common objectives such as encouraging innovation and business investment through Union identity and national diversity (European Union, 2006).In the early 21st century, organisations have been through important changes related to this trend of globalisation where not only factors such as international competitive pressure and business activities have taken place, but also the diversity of human capital from all around the world where cross-cultural interaction has been in expansion (Mullins, 2005).Therefore, it is important that these companies identify their strategies when managing cultural differences in order to have the right opportunities to gain competitive advantage (Schneider and Barsoux, 2003).Nevertheless, there are also some risks than can bring difference of cultures in the workplace or business activities; consequently, it is vital that organisations understand that different cultures execute procedures differently (Pooley, 2005; Adler, 1983 cited Miroshnik, 2002).Furthermore, and being more specific, the management of these ethnically diverse workforce has been on the spot of many authors. As Tayeb (1996; p180-181) says Ã¢â¬Å"the first step in the management of a diverse workforce is to recognise and value such diversityÃ¢â¬ , then he argues that Ã¢â¬Å"once the diversity is recognised, the next step is to ensure that it is effectively utilised and handledÃ¢â¬ .In this case, utilising those differences contributes to an effective management, thus to bring opportunities for organisational learning and innovation creating competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Schneider and Bardou x, 2003; Mor Barak, 2005).To gain this, managers must have the needed skills to manage a multicultural workforce, this includes, having the ability to recognise and accept cultural differences between their workers as well as coordination, cooperation and communications (Lane et al, 1997; Ravlin et al cited Earley and Singh, 2000).c)Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Significance and the Importance of the StudyManaging culturally diverse workforce is nowadays a challenge for international managers. On one hand, diversity represents both differences and similarities that exists on individuals and which make them be unique from one to another (Buelens et al, 2002); and on the other hand Parekh (2000) defines culture as Ã¢â¬Å"a system of beliefs and practices in terms of which a group of human beings understand, regulate and structure their individual and collective livesÃ¢â¬ .Thus, cultural diversity is a variety of cultural differences that requires awareness, understanding and acceptance of th ose differences by managers, making the most of them in order to gain positive outcomes (Scarborough, 2001; Littrell, 2002; Harris et al, 2004; Smith and Peterson, 2005).Cultural differences might have some influences in the way managers manage and motivate their culturally diverse team, and those ways or styles that are carried out in one culture are difficult to be implemented in another due to the difference of traditions, ways of doing things and values of that culture (Hofstede cited Evans et al cited Jackson, 1995).Therefore, further investigation is recommended to be developed to minimise cultural shock in management which could affect business performance. However, this study has been done to offer an up-to-date source of information about multicultural workforce and its influences on management style to motivate employees, which is going to be executed through secondary research.Hence, factors such as cultural diversity and management style should be analyzed in-depth in or der to comprehend what may constrain managers of any multinational organisation to adjust strategies to maintain the business addressed to its objectives.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Diabetes - Essay Example Type II diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is the most common form. Diabetes is an internal disease, which is caused due to the build up of glucose in the blood and insufficient glucose provided to the cells in the body. Living organisms need energy to survive and for this they intake food. The food that they eat goes through a lot of internal processes to be converted into energy. The hormone that plays the main role in this conversion is insulin, which is secreted by pancreas. It takes glucose from the blood and provides to all the body cells and this is how it is turned into energy. A person suffers from diabetes because his pancreas either fails to secrete sufficient amount of insulin or because the body does not utilize the already secreted hormone accordingly. He or she is seen to have high blood sugar levels or hyperglycemia. Causes of Type II Diabetes: Type II diabetes is mainly seen in people who have crossed 45 years. But with the modern lifestyle and the way the world works nowadays, even children and youngsters have started being affected by it. The percentage of youth suffering from diabetes is increasing steadily. To be safe from this disease, one needs to know the different factors that lead to it. Research has shown that Ã¢â¬Å"genetic susceptibilityÃ¢â¬ (Causes of Diabetes para 9) and Ã¢â¬Å"environmental factorsÃ¢â¬ (Causes of Diabetes para 12) such as obesity, lack of physical activity, metabolic syndrome, beta cell dysfunction etc, are the main reasons behind type II diabetes Often at times, genes play a very important role in placing a person under high risk or low risk of being prone to diabetes. This means that a person, whose parents and siblings suffered from this disease, stands a greater chance of falling prey to it. Inheriting such genes, especially Ã¢â¬Å"variants of the TCF7L2 geneÃ¢â¬ (Causes of Diabetes para 24) leads to restriction in the amount of insulin that is produced, wh ich causes the blood sugar levels to rise abnormally. Ethnicity also accounts as a factor and mostly Ã¢â¬Å"African Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians etcÃ¢â¬ (Causes of Diabetes para 22) are seen to have diabetes. Certain genes also bring about the tendency in people to become obese. Obesity, mainly the one where the individual has excessive belly fat, along with absence of exercise cause a lot of cardio vascular problems and ultimately lead to diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is seen in people who have insulin resistance, due to which the cells of the body become unable to absorb the glucose present in the blood. Beta cell dysfunction causes substantial difference in the amount of insulin that is secreted. When glucose is produced in huge amounts, a condition called glucose toxicity occurs in which the beta cells are vitiated. Other factors include over secretion of glucose by liver, hindrances in communication among cells etc. Complications of Type II Diabetes: Type II di abetes is a very serious disease since one of the main hormones, insulin, which controls the blood sugar levels as well as the major activity of the body, that is converting glucose into energy, is tampered with. Diabetes itself is caused by factors that are quite harmful for the body, and when these factors along with diabetes together are present, the person suffering definitely runs the risk of being affected by other diseases. Type II diabetes is thus, associated to certain other diseases which prove to
Sunday, July 28, 2019
CA 1 RED - Essay Example There is no bias in the use of this mode of assessment. If the learning tasks are easy, then test items will be easy. The objective of the criterion-referenced test is to get the sketch of the specific knowledge and expertise that every learner can express. Such information is important during the planning process for both the individual and groups. This performance based assessment demands the learners express their skills in writing a given assignment such an essay. In an essay writing, for instance, a learner is required to show his/her capacity to write clear paragraphs with correct and in the given format. It involves a process where the learners are required give a project either oral, written or in a group. It is a great way to deliver the curriculum that demands the inclusion of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas and their total involvement. The guidelines given enable the students to comprehend the various essay topics and the writing formats. The formal mode of assessment has information that supports the elucidations from a given test. The method is designed with various components that involve analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the learning process. The informal mode of assessment is content and performance driven as opposed to data. The method enables the teachers to recognize the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors, document performance, and make decisions, hence enabling them make informed decisions. Running records, for example, are informal assessments since they tell how good a learner is reading a particular book. Scores such as percentage of words read correctly is an example of informal assessment. They are largely used to inform the instruction (Deiner
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Discussion Board - Essay Example A manufacturing supervisor must attempt to address the requirements of the organization with the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. In addition, manufacturing supervisors are faced with environmental challenges (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin & Cardy, 2008). Also, the manufacturing supervisors are faced with the challenge of ensuring the organization meets its targets and goals. There are a number of ways a manufacturing supervisor can deal with the different challenges arising in the organization. These problems can reduce when the organization employ a supervisor who posses technical, administrative, human relations, and conceptual skills. The manufacturing supervisor should comprehend the technical features of the work being carried out. It is essential for the manufacturing supervisor to understand the needs of employees when trying to manage job performance. In addition, a manufacturing supervisor who posses people skills will accomplish the objective of the people through and with the workers. Also, it is essential for the manufacturing supervisor to gain an understanding of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics and be familiar with politics in the organization (Kotter & Cohen, 2002). Adopting these perspectives will help decrease these
Friday, July 26, 2019
Material Science - Essay Example Graphene is another example of a nano-structural material that is being used in the optic and electronic industry, due to its high energy capacity and also the high rate of charge. Scanning probe microscope works through the use of a physical probe that scans specimens and then provides the recorded data that is depicted in the form of a heat map that takes either an orange or a black and white image. Shear stress refers to the force that pushes particles within a liquid, gaseous or solid material in the direction that is parallel to the surface/plane. On the other hand, tensile stress refers to the forces that push a particle on to the other from varied directions. Compressive stress refers to the forces in the materials that push the material particles against one another. A phase diagram offers information related to the structure of a material through graphic presentation, which indicates the relationship between solid, liquids and gaseous state of a material when the material is heat-treated. It offers information regarding at which heat-point the solid state of material changes to liquid, and at which heat-point the liquid changes into gas. Annealing refers to the heat treatment of a material such that it increases its ductility and becomes more workable. Quenching refers to the rapid cooling of a material through immersion into a liquid such as oil or water, to form a certain material property that is activatable in different material states. Austenitizing refers to the heat-treatment of material such that it attains certain hardening characteristic when it is cooled down through quenching. Normalizing is a heat-treatment method for materials that softens the materials without producing the uniformity of the material property. Collision occurs on the event of two signals being sent through the same channel of transmission, such that the signals collide with each other. Packet collision is a form of
Thursday, July 25, 2019
African American Music - Essay Example Could you imagine African American culture without music? This question is rather rhetorical. Floyd defined African-American music as music that emanates directly from the black experience in America, descending from the calls, cries, hollers, spirituals, ragtime, and blues of the slavery and post-slavery periods. This genre includes jazz, rhythm and blues, black gospel, and all the forms to which these genres have given birth (Floyd, 232). Interestingly, no one knows exactly when the blues or jazz music began. Ã¢â¬Å"When asked about the origin of blues, old-time fiddlers in New Orleans replied, the blues? AinÃ¢â¬â¢t no first blues! The blues always beenÃ¢â¬ (Southern, 332). Historically, through their indigenous music of their homeland, slaves brought many characteristics of blues, ragtime, and jazz music. Even though those persons could not bring their instruments and familiar possessions from their country, they did bring music in their hearts and minds. For them music serve d as a way of life in Africa, for celebrations and rituals. For work, pleasure, and freedom in America, the slaves adapted a new kind of music, developing a new culture for themselves by combining parts of the American culture with African culture. The new music of work songs, shouts, hollers, cries, and moans, evolved into the blues, happy and sad songs.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Leisure and Recreation - Essay Example Also what new ideas you would bring to that particular sports program.Ã Worth 25 pointsÃ b) Is there one thing that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned this quarter that has changed your mind about recreation? What is it? How did it change your perception of recreation? Explain in a minimum of 350 words. Give a strong defense of your point of view. Tell me and your classmates why you feel strongly about your position.Ã Worth 25 pointsÃ Answer these 3 Questions on Leisure and RecreationÃ (Question #1)Ã What are the benefits of leisure to you? Explain?Ã (Question #2)Ã In your personal life, do you leave enough time for leisure and recreation. If so, what do you like to do? Explain.Ã (Question #3)Ã What trends do you see in the future for leisure and recreation?Ã Without a doubt, instructional sports are vital to the development of any organization. Instructional sports incorporate discipline, organization, and vital teamwork that is necessary in to thrive in real-lif e. It influences individuals to focus and train on a consistent basis and enjoy the competitive nature of it. In addition, instructional sports are pivotal it enables children to grasp rules and tactics that are associated with sports. It develops knowledge and skill that are undoubtedly crucial if an individual wants to pursue particular sport as their profession. One key element that is vital in instructional sports that is not found in any other recreation is the fact that it builds leadership and collaboration. These leadership skills are vital as they cultivate an aura of experience that most children lack in their life. With experience, individuals can portray their willingness to perform and excel in sports. However, the challenge in recreation sports is to seek instructors and tutors who truly understand the game and know how to mentor individuals. Without proper mentoring, individuals will not be able to taste the true essence of instructional sports. These dynamic skills e nable individuals to mature and embed these crucial skills in real life. Hence, instructional sports are critical since they are a foundation of forming discipline, organization, and collaboration. In order to enhance instructional sports, I would bring professional athletes to mentor these kids. I truly believe that these athletes possess experience and instincts that can be truly valuable to this program. In addition, I would give incentives for students if they achieve certain milestones. For instance, if they are playing competitive football, merits would be based on goals achieved in their position. Moreover, I would try to attach the socialization agent with instructional sports. Instructional sports require team dynamics. Thus, allowing peers to collaborate with each other in a social environment can truly add a new aspect to instructional sports. Lastly, I would add technology to instructional sports, visual game simulation to mimic real life situations in a technical settin g. My perception of recreation has changed in many ways. First and foremost is the fact that recreation sports do allow individuals to experience their passion for sports and compete at a decent lever. Many individuals dream of competing at a professional stage. Unfortunately, they might not possess the talent to play in the professional standard, but they can portray the love of the game through intramural sports. Individuals who have other priorities can truly indulge in recreational sports without feeling the pressure of succeeding.
Experience of Illness and Disability - Essay Example This study analyses MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s case, where interview reveals a number of social perspectives on his view regarding health. Through drawing from literature concepts and critically analysing the case study, specific aspects that will be covered are the lay health beliefs, illness behaviour, social support and practitioner-client interaction as they gradually progress in MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s illness narrative. The guiding thesis for this study is that a sociological viewpoint is pivotal in establishing the experience of illness and thus determining health outcomes. Studying lay health beliefs is critical to the healthcare industry due to a number of reasons; it helps understand practitioner-client relationships; it aids design of effective health education programs; most of healthcare work is carried out by lay people in terms of self-care or friend-family care (Nettleton 2006, pp. 35-36). Lay ideas and concepts about health are socially mediated and vary according to several considerations including time, social location, cultural contexts and socio-economic conditions. There appears to be points of divergences and convergences between expert knowledge and lay beliefs about explanations and definitions of health, health behaviour and the relationship between health maintenance and disease prevention (36). According to Gabe, Bury and Elston (2004, pp. 135-136), individual beliefs about illness, health and healthcare are vital in establishing illness behaviour such as non-compliance and the decision to visit a physician among others. Such belie fs are shaped by broader cultural and social factors that are also context dependent, influencing the actions taken by the individual for instance through the lay referral system where individuals consult family and friends about visiting a doctor (67). Besides, lay beliefs about health influence individual lifestyles and risks that have a bearing on such individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ health and
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The United Kingdom, Manchester, A Boeing 737-236 Crashes - Assignment Example This was 9 seconds later. The commanders reported that the acceleration of the left engine was acceptable. This was seconded by the first officer who thought it was better than the previous day. The auto-throttle was selected and the engines achieved the required take-off. The controller then confirmed the fire with the air traffic control and warned the crew on an evacuation that was to be done through the right side of the aircraft. The aircraft was then brought to a stop at the entrance to the link delta (Gero, 2011). Investigations showed that the accident was caused by failure of the left engine which was brought about by failure that occurred at combustor 9 which had been the subject of a repair. The fire developed as a result of adverse orientation of the parked aircraft relatively to the wind though the wind was not strong. The main cause of the accident was recorded to be caused by the ignorance that was done to the thud and the accelerator that was ignored to be working. The pilots and the 4 cabin crew reported to take the flight at 0500hrs on Thursday August 1985. The flight was scheduled to take off at 0600hrs. The pilots and the commander who was a training captain completed their preflight preparation and the crew was also briefed on the duties they were to undertake before they boarded the aircraft. The external check was carried out by the commander while the co-pilot carried out pre-flight check on the flight deck (Gero, 2011). Documents of the aircraft were examined and an entry was made on the previous dayÃ¢â¬â¢s technical problem that related to reduction in acceleration of the left engine. There had been no problems reported on the two flights and the commanders signed the acceptance of the aircraft in the technical log. Starting the engines was done by the co-pilot and there were no problems that were observed during the start (Gero, 2011). The cabin crew carried out their roles through
Monday, July 22, 2019
Rizals Juventud Essay This may seem like a blatant patronization of Rizal, but I like to say: I love this particular work of his. One can bask in the colorful language that he uses in this one. Also, this particular work presents a lot of allegories from which one can try to decipher and understand. And from these ideas we can see what Rizal is trying to say in the poem and in extention what is on his mind. In the first stanza, the writer writes of the Philippine youth as a flower about to bloom yet still a bud. The writer exhorts the flower to look up and shine. As one who has waited for long, the writer has determined that the flower is ready to bloom on this day as stated in the poem. Also the writer refers to the youth as the fair hope of this land. While old people are more experienced, they may have manifested most of their potential and thus about to become a relic of the past. The writer exhorts the youth to fully realize their potential, Manifesting the grace and gallantry of your [youth] line. It is interesting that in the next stanza, the writer asks the Spirit of grandeur to fill them [the youth] with noble meditation. I was half expecting Rizal to write knowledge instead of meditation. Upon some thought, I saw the wisdom in these words. While we continue to shove knowledge into our brains, if we lack discernment what to do with this knowledge, it would be useless and may even be our undoing. The writer exhorts the reader to higher aspirations tempered with cautious meditation lest what we learn may be our own undoing. This in my opinion is very timely. I am about to leave the university. As I go out into the world I shall utilize my knowledge to earn a living and live life itself. However, a meditative attitude should always be present to assess our actions and what is the wisest thing to do as of the moment. The next three stanzas reminds me of Platos cave and the chains that bind. In the cave, man is chained and made to watch the wall and the shadows on the wall. This is what constitutes his world. However, someone comes along and tries to make man see the beauty of the life outside. However, man accustomed to his world is confused with what he sees. This makes him want to return to the cave. In the poem, youth is chained to the wall. His intelligence and genius is shackled away to prevent it from flying. The writer exhorts the reader to smash these chains and see the light. Additionaly, Rizal sees mother Spain as one who tries to make the youth see the light. Instead of returning to the darkness However,unlike Platos cave, the writer sees one who has been fully freed from their chains in their mind. What perplexes me is that the writer writes of one who rises on his fantasy in search of poetry. I am tempted to interpret this as a general search for knowledge since we can say that whatever can be known can be expressed in the poetry of something (e. g biology as poetry of nature, mathematics as poetry of numbers). However, I am not entirely sure of this. But in the spirit of Rizals other writings I can say that this may be true. In the end, the writer exhorts the youthful and skillful musician, sculptor, and the painter to make haste and strive for glory. Because as said in the final stanza, the gains of these people will reflect on the nation itself and in the end will be a blessing to us all. However, in the present situation, I doubt that Rizal would be proud of the youth. Though growing in strength, a majority are still living in their own worlds, oblivious to the world outside. They need to know more about the world and see things for what they actually are. This of course is a challenge for education.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Risk management in project development Risk Management In Software development Abstract: Risks are always associated with any kind of project development. It is important to identify and control the risks associated with any project as important it is to develop a project. Especially with software projects there are many unexpected problems which may hinder the software development process. It is crucial to control these risks from the technical development of components for a project to be successful. Hence the software industry is seeing software development risk management as an important practice to minimize the occurrence of risks associated with the project. This research papers gives an insight into various risks associated with software development and the methods to reduce these risks. Introduction: Risk management is a very interesting topic in todays world. Now as days we see that software is an essential part of any application and is used in every company for various purposes. Software has become an important part of life and is practically used in everyday life for various purposes. Now days, due to increase in software companies and usage of internet, a lot of complex and large software projects are developed. These projects have constraints of resources, cost and schedule. So it becomes necessary to build these projects risk free as there are many factors and constraints associated with it. In the present competitive world, there are a lot of companies making various softwares which are large scale and small scale. With this huge scope developing software, comes the risks of managing and developing successful software. Technology is advanced tremendously but still the problems and risks related to software development exist. Research has shown that 85% of all projects being developed fail due to various risks associated with project development. Out of these 40% completely fail due to incomplete requirements and 46% due to cost and schedule over runs and improper functionality. So, effective risk management is important for successful project development. Risk: A Risk is the occurrence of an event which can adversely affect or hinder the development process. A risk is any event which is likely to happen or not but if it does happen will have a negative effect on the project. Risk cannot be classified into various categories but it is the types of risks that need to be identified which are associated with a project. The risks may vary from managing team members, resources and changing environment or technology. Technical risks lie at the heart of most of the causes of software project failures. Technical risks can be defined as the possibility that the application of software engineering theory, principles, and techniques will fail to yield the right software product. Technical risk is comprised of the underlying technological factors that may cause the final product to be: overly expensive, delivered late, or unacceptable to the customer. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) Risk Management and Factors Responsible for Risks: Risk Management can be defined as An application of appropriate tools and procedures to contain risk within acceptable limits by identifying, addressing, and eliminating potential problems before they damage a project.(Dhlamini, J. 2009). It contains processes, methods and tools for managing risks associated with a software project. The basic aim of risk management is to early analyze and identify the risks associated with the project development and take the necessary steps change the course of action to minimize the risks. Risk Management is basically a continuous and formalized process of assessment which requires a team-oriented and needs open communication between all the members. The various factors responsible for risks in development of software projects are scope, resources, cost, communication, integration, time scale, quality and contracts. Every factor has its own risk and affects the project development in a way if not managed properly. Like if the project is outsourced there are times when the communication is not clear between the offshore and onshore team. Most of the times to cut the costs the management, might not use the right sources required for the project resulting in a failure. Sometimes the requirements are not defined properly with may result into a product which is not per the expectations thus affecting the quality of the product. At times, while the project is half way through and there is a change in the technology and company policy which may affect the project. Many times, stakeholder conflicts may also affect the project cost and deadline. Integration is also an issue if many teams are participating in project development. Risk Management Models: There have been various approaches and models proposed for software risk management based on the research on the risks associated with projects and the experiences of the project managers and professionals. There are a few basic approaches for risk management. They are traditional and risk-oriented method. The traditional approach is very generic to all the projects deals with the risks associated with all the projects in general and specific to a particular project. The second approach is risk-oriented which deals with identifying the risks associated with a specific project and aims to deal with those risks before they harm the project. Goal Driven Software Development Risk Management model is a risk-oriented approach to deal with the risks associated with the software project development. There are many such models that were proposed like the first one proposed by Barry Boehm in 1988. His proposed a framework by collecting all the requirements and measures together. SEI (Software Engineering Institute-1997) also proposed a risk management framework. The goal of this framework was to help the manager, developers and other decision makers to identify the risks at an early stage of development, so that appropriate measures can be taken at the right time to minimize the risk. Karolak in 1996 also proposed a model for risk management to handle high level risks. This model proposed a model to handle the risks which affect the cost and time of project development. The various methodologies for risk management are given below: a) Goal Driven Software Development Risk Management Model (GSRM): The GSRM is risk management approach which consists of a model of four layers to manage risks in software development. The advantage of using a layered approach is that any technique can be applied to any layer at any time without affecting the other layers. The diagram for the GSRM is shown below, Goal Layer: This is the first layer in GSRM where identifying, elaborating and modeling of goals are done based on the components to be developed for project to be successful. Success of a project can be defined as anything like meeting the deadlines, within estimated cost, fully functional project, meeting the user requirements, etc. So, success means identifying all the technical component development to be done as early as possible. In GSRM, the goals can be identified as project scope, business needs, user requirement, cost estimation, schedule, etc. So these goals in the development process must be ensured to be within project scope, maintained under decided budget and to realistic time scale, achieve all the business needs and reduce risks based on the nature of project, for a successful project development. Many times these goals may be too high so they are divided into small goals which can be achieved at different levels of abstraction. So it is important to attain these small goals to attain the final goal. Due to this, it is easy to model the development components where satisfying the goal makes it easy to final project fulfillment. (Islam, S. 2009) Risk-Obstacle Layer: This is the second layer in the GSRM model, which identifies the risks associated with the project development. These risks can be considered as potential obstacles which are identified from the early developed components and can affect the project goal. Many times there are processes that depend on each other and if there is an obstacle in one of the process it may cause obstruction in other processes also. Obstacles can be due to human error, wrong information, vague/incomplete requirements, miscommunication, wrong technology implementation, etc which may obstruct the achievement of goals resulting in affecting the time scale and cost of development. So risk obstacle identification is done through questionnaire, cross checking the requirements and brainstorming with the stakeholders. A set of brainstorming session and questionnaire is followed after the initial set of components developed to identify the risks before they worsen. These risks are then assessed by the assessment laye r. (Islam, S. 2009) Assessment Layer: This is the third layer in GSRM, where the risk is properly analyzed and explained the event that caused the risk to occur. The risk event that has caused the risk has two properties: likelihood and severity. Severity increases the negative impact of the risk event and likelihood is the possibility of a risk occurring due to the event. There are some risk factors that can give rise to one risk event which may cause many obstacles leading to disturbing the final goal. So this allows in analyzing the various risk factors and the impact that these risks will have on the set of goals to be achieved. So this layer considers risks metrics to identify the likelihood of occurrence of the risk event due to the risk factors. These risk metrics considers the risk factors, risk occurrence likelihood and risk severity for analyzing and measuring the risks which makes the process very easy and simple to identify the risks at early stage of development. For the assessment this model uses Bayesians subjective probability for analyzing the risks events that occurred due to risk factors. In this model, on those risk events that have a negative effect on the goals to achieve are considered. So, this layer basically gives the risks in the order of likelihood and severity that may affect the satisfaction of the final goal to be achieved through obstruction link. (Islam, S. 2009) Treatment Layer: This is the last layer in the model and this layer is to identify the set of actions that can be taken to reduce the risks and also selects the most appropriate action required for the particular risk so as to minimize the effect of the risk in achieving the final goal. Basically, this layer comes into action when the goals, risk factors and risk events have been identified and analyzed by the previous layers and a cost effective measure is required to be implemented to achieve the goal. For this, there can be various agents within the development environment like humans or some tools are used to satisfy the goals. So it is very important to consider the cost benefit of using a particular agent. Hence it becomes very much necessary to model, reason and trace a situation in the software development atmosphere to control and minimize the risks to attain the final goal. (Islam, S. 2009) Boehms Model: Boehm proposed a model in 1988 for risk management in software development. This model was based on spiral model and proposed a framework for minimizing the impact on risk by integrating risk management methods into software development model. The main idea behind this approach is to remove the anticipated risks at an early stage to avoid their occurrence and effect on the later stages of development. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) Boehms model stated that risk management can be divided into two subcategories i.e. Risk control and Risk Assessment. Risk Assessment can again be sub-divided into risk identification, risk analysis and risk prioritization. Risk Control can be sub-divided into risk management planning, risk resolution and risk monitoring. In risk assessment, the risks are basically identified, their impacts are analyzed and a priority is set based on the impact of analyzed risks. Then in Risk Identification all the possible risks that can arise during the project development phase. So this consists on maintaining checklists, suggestions, documentation, assumption analysis and decomposition. The risk analysis stage where the potential of the risk is identified and the probability of its occurrence. It includes the analysis of performance and network. Now once the risk is identified and analyzed comes the risk prioritization stage. In this stage the risk is prioritized based on the value of the impact of that risk. This basically helps in exposing the risk so that it can be taken care of before it aggravates. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) An example for the above can be given as below where the risk factors affecting Satellite Experiments software are given in the table below. The table below shows various factors affecting the project development. The column of Unsatisfactory Outcome shows the various reasons affecting the project. The second column shows the probability of that occurrence on the scale of 1-10. The third column shows the loss occurrence and the last column shows risk exposure. Software Engineering Institute (SEI): The framework provided by the SEI for software risk management is to enable three groups, namely the Software Risk Evolution (SRE), Continuous Risk Management (CRM) and Team Risk Management (TRM). The main motive behind developing this framework is to enable the decision makers like the stakeholders, customers, managers and engineers to identify the risks associated with the software development cycle like analysis, requirement gathering, developing, integrating and testing, so that appropriate minimizing strategies can be applied at the right time. These methodologies have relatively three fundamentally different objects i.e. risk prevention, risk mitigation and correction and ensuring safe system failure. To achieve these three objectives there are seven principles for risk management. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) They are, Shared Product Vision: It focuses on results. It is based on sharing product vision related to a common purpose and shared ownership. Teamwork: It defines working together as a team for achieving a common goal by pooling skills, talents and knowledge. Global Perspective: The system design and development is viewed from a global perspective of building a larger system. Identifying the potential of the final product from a global perspective and also the impact of adverse effects like cost and time overrun or not meeting the requirements. Open Communication: Making sure that communication is open between all the members involved in the project at all levels. By supporting formal and informal communication where required. Supports a consensus-based process where individual is allowed to give an opinion regarding the risk associated with the project. Forward-Looking View: It thinks about tomorrow, identifies the associated uncertainties and possible outcomes along with managing project resources and activities. Integrated Management: Making risk management an integral part of project development process. Adopting risk management tools and methodologies to project development process. Identification is the first step in SEI model. In this step the issues which will affect the project goal are identified. In the next step of analysis, these risks are analyzed by the decision makers to work on these risks. In the planning stage these risks are prioritized in the order of value which might affect the final goal. Then each risk in the order of priority is taken into consideration and a study is done on that risk is done during planning so that an appropriate action can be taken against them to avoid the risk and minimizing their impact. Then proper measures are taken so as to make sure that are risks are handled as they are planned. Thus tracking of all the measures taken is done to see if things are going as planned and all the necessary control measures are executed. Communication present at the center of the model facilitates connection between all the steps in the model. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) While implementing the SEI model all the activities follow a sequence of steps. The risk and mitigation database lies at the center of the model and is responsible for all the communication between various activities. It is responsible for identifying all the risks and making an entry for all the new risks that have been identified. Risks like cost overrun, increase in time scale, resources problem, vague requirements, improper functionality, improper testing, inefficient testing tools and no time for testing. Many times the risks are identified before they arise actually. Like increase in the cost of development, lack of proper resources or incomplete requirements. At times when huge projects are to be handled, they are generally broken into smaller sub-parts. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) In each sub-part different methods and criteria of handling risks. In this case, there is less time and cost required to handle these risks and is efficiently handled. These risks are prioritized based on their impact value, dependency, cost and resources required to minimize them. Risk mitigation plan is then made based on the priority of the risk, so as to give preference to high probability risk. This plan is documented so as to keep a track all the risks in the order of priority and a record of all the risks that are handled and ones remaining. This plan is then updated on regular basis as and when a risk is taken care of and they no longer exist. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) Riskit Method: Riskit Method was proposed by Jyrki Kontio in 1996 which mainly focused on goals and stakeholders. This model is very much based on theoretical concepts based on the experience. This model was proposed based on the previous developers experience. The main characteristics of this model are fully operational definition of process, risk management, scope, focus, authority, processes and steps for identifying and defining goals of the project. Riskit method has five elements of risk. Risk Elements in Riskit Method: Risk Factor: It is an attribute which may affect the likelihood of occurrence of a risk. Risk Event: It is an event of occurrence of a negative incident. Risk Outcome: It is a situation that occurs between the risk occurrence and before corrective measures implemented. Risk reaction: It is an action taken in response to the occurrence of the risk and the effect of the risk occurrence. Risk Effect Set: It is the effect of the risk event occurrence and the set of characteristics which are affected by the risk event. The seven steps in Riskit process are: Risk Management Mandate Definition: In this step the scope and frequency of risk management are defined with all the stakeholders being recognized. The output of this step is to mandate risk management like how, why, when, where, what, whom, etc. Goal Review: In this step all the predefined goals of the project are reviewed and refined and the new refined goals are clearly defined. Then the stakeholders associations analyze the redefined goal. Risk Identification: In this step, various potential risks associated with the project are identified and listed down. Risk Analysis: In the analysis phase, all the identified risks are classified in the order of priority. These risks effects are then estimated for all the possible scenarios. Then the probability of utility losses due to these risks is estimated. Finally, a graph is prepared based on the estimated risks and their scenarios. Risk Control Planning: Now, once the risks have been graphed based on their value of impact, the most important risk is taken for risk control planning. Then all the members decide and propose control actions to be taken for a particular risk. Then a controlling action is decided and finalized. Finally, the decided action is taken to control the risk. Risk Control: In this phase, the action for risk control decided in the previous stage is executed, resulting in reduced risks. Risk Monitoring: After the risk control stage, the risks are monitored to check their situation resulting risk status. (Dhlamini, J. 2009) FMEA Technique: FMEA technique is a risk management technique which stands for Failure Mode Effect Analysis. These days due to heavy competition companies realize the need for innovation but fear failure or sometimes ignore the risks associated with it, resulting in failure. Due to bad design, implementation and testing it may result in heavy loss, incomplete functionality or even decline in market share. To overcome this fear of failure and we need a process that will identify the failure modes that will damage customer satisfaction, recognize the reason for failure and see the causes of failure. This will help to identify the critical failure areas and take the necessary action to avoid the situation. So FMEA technique is used which provides a tool for recognizing the risk areas from design to production which may lead to failure. (Stunell, P. 2003) The FMEA process consists of a certain steps. The first step is identification of the risks that can occur during the project development process from design to development. In this step, first raw information is gathered from the stakeholders, managers and team members and previous projects in a structured format so that a knowledge base is create to identify all the potential risks that can arise leading to project failure. The next step is to assign a value to that risk based on its probability of occurrence, the impact of risk and detection based on the analysis of team members, stakeholders and other professionals. Then a Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is used to identify the probability of occurrence of a risk and the effect of its occurrence. This will help in taking a corrective measure at the right time so that the product goes as decided and has customer satisfaction.RPN uses rating scales based on the severity of the consequence for a particular risk, probability of the failure due to its occurrence and probability of a risk occurrence. (Stunell, P. 2003) The rating is done on the scale of 1 to 5 or 1 to 10 based on this rating the severity of the risk is calculated. For example, in the rating of 1 to 5, generally a risk whose value is 5 is very likely to occur than the one having a value 1. The figure below shows a scale of 1 to 5. Then once this is done a graph or scatter plot is created based on the RPN and risk value. Then based on these calculated values a priority list is created for all the risks. A risk response plan is created after the priority is created and the risks are re-evaluated based on the RPN and risk value. Once the risk is identified then accordingly the corrective steps are taken to reduce the risk. After the action is taken again, the calculations are done to see the effectiveness of the action. This helps in knowing the percentage reduction in RPN. (Stunell, P. 2003) Advantages Disadvantages of Risk Management: Advantages: Risk Management helps in early detection of problems associated with the project. It helps in preparing the development team to face the future problems. It reduces overall cost of the development which might increase due to risks associated with the project. Helps in taking the right steps like proper developers, technologies, time scale, etc. Disadvantages: It takes time during the initial stages as it requires analysis and information gathering on the possible risks associated with the project. It may also increase the overall cost of development. My View-Point: This paper is based on my research on the various risks associated with the project development and the methods to minimize these risks. Since the advancement of technology and scope for software development a lot of complex projects are developed. But there are always some risks associated with the development of these large scale projects. Risks can be like cost increase, resources problem, time schedule and many more. Many methods are proposed based on the experience of the managers and other professionals to avoid and minimize the risks associated with software project development. Based on my experience with projects and understanding of these methods I feel that risk management is as important as project development. Risk Management should be a part of software development cycle because it important to manage and identify the risks associated with the development as important it is to develop a full functional product under the given time and cost to satisfy the customer. Many times unexpected problems may arise during the development phase or testing phase which may result in backtrack to the design phase resulting in increasing cost and time scale. At times, developers may leave a project half-way which may result in resource problem. So risk management implementation in project development may give the stakeholders, developers and managers to time to analyze the risks associated with the development and prepare themselves risks to come in advance. From my research on the above methods of risk management, I feel that goal driven approach and FMEA technology are better to be used for various types of project. Goal Driven Software Development Risk Management Model is a goal based approach. In this model the goals of the project are defined at the very start of the project like the error free requirements, end user involvement, scope, business needs, realistic time scale, cost estimation and managing resources. This will reduce the occurrence of unexpected problems during the development process. Even if a risk arises unexpectedly, it has a series of steps to follow like the obstacle- link layer for the obstacles that arise for a decided goal to achieve. Then the analysis layer which is used to analyze the obstacle and the treatment layer where a proper action is taken based on the analysis layer. This approach is really good for small and medium sized projects as they are with one team and the user can be in direct communication with them and the team knows the whole development cycle. FMEA technology is mainly used in managing risks in large complex projects. In this technology first the risks which are likely to occur are decided based on the experience of senior professionals and stakeholders. Then, this raw information is made as a knowledge base and all the other risks are also identified. Then these risks are prioritized based on their value of impact on the project development. After that these risks are analyzed and a document is made. Then based on this analysis a corrective method is decided and implemented to reduce the risk. This really helps in large projects because the basic risks are associated with all the teams working on the project but few risks are face by the teams working on different modules. So these teams have their own set of risks to handle and the basic ones of they occur. This will reduce the time and cost in risk management as teams will face their own small risks to handle rather than a single team on large project handling all the r isks alone. So FMEA technology can be used for managing risks in large scale projects. Other projects are equally useful but they cannot be implemented alone. They are combined with other models to control risks associated with software development. 7) Conclusion: Risk Management is an integral part of any project development cycle. It is something that the software industry needs to pay equal attention to as software development. This is because the statistics show that more than 70% of the projects fail due to various reasons and risks associated with them. There have been studies done in this area and professionals have proposed and implemented various methods for risk management. But still this problem does exist in the industry. Project development should plan a risk management plan along with the development plan to make sure that the project is completed on time, within the estimated cost and to the full satisfaction of the customer. Thus Risk management is very beneficial and extremely important for any project to be successful and satisfy the customer needs. 8) References: Boehm, B. (1989). Software acquisition gold practiceÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å¾Ã ¢ formal risk management. Retrieved from http://www.goldpractices.com/practices/frm/ Boehm, B. (1991). Software risk management: principles and practices. IEEE Software, 8(1), Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=625015 doi: 10.1109/52.62930 Boehm, B. (1998, 12 5). Software risk management. Retrieved from http://sunset.usc.edu/classes/cs510_2003/notes/ec-files/Software_Risk_Management.ppt Boban, M. (2003, 11 02). Strategies for successful software development risk management . Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:HeDQ2Ow8nUYJ:www.efst.hr/management/Vol8No2-2003/4-boban-pozgaj-sertic.doc+risk+management+in+software+developmentcd=16hl=enct=clnkgl=us Dhlamini, J. (2009). Intelligent risk management tools for software development. Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Conference of the Southern African Computer Lecturers Association, 33-40. Examining risk priority numbers in fmea. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.reliasoft.com/newsletter/2q2003/rpns.htm Islam , S. (2009). Software development risk management model: a goal driven approach. Proceedings of the doctoral symposium for ESEC/FSE on Doctoral symposium, 5-8. Prikladnicki, R. (n.d.). Risk management in software development: a position paper. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=vq=cache:EkxHkf-j8d4J:gsd2004.cs.uvic.ca/camera/prikladnicki.pdf+risk+management+in+software+developmenthl=engl=uspid=blsrcid=ADGEESi3waZpt2SvUyFxBL_yCBTqZw3dRNjeK-Q9UorompBDJtxpg4tyvOhcf-25jgS1-2GymhNqyjtfKrUdMVgqa8wPaUo35ZJ_GCCzvA7V7Abvtz6hkEWK2N0BkcCAn5F36b1jpaGzsig=AHIEtbRhFabMWP1F7cCeNUCDQUVFhhh3Hw Stunell, P. (2003). How to Improve productivity in design and development. Retrieved from http://www.stunell.com/PDFs/Engineering%20FMEA-Version-2-2.pdf William, L. (2008, 08 14). Risk management. Retrieved from http://openseminar.org/se/modules/21/index/screen.do
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Theory, use and therapeutic value of symbolic play This essay looks at the issue of symbolic play being therapeutic play for children. The essay looks at the theory of symbolic play, the use of symbolic play with children, the therapeutic value of symbolic play, using research to support the discussions. The essay discusses what is understood by symbolic play, then moves on to discuss the importance of symbolic play in childrens development, looking at the various theories that have been put forward to explain the importance of play in childrens development. The essay then moves on to look at various instances where therapeutic play has been used, and is considered useful, such as in children who are experiencing a chronic illness, who are hospitalized, who are awaiting surgery or who have experienced some form of trauma. What is symbolic play? Symbolic play is, according to Piaget (1962) one of the main ways in which children learn to think in a representational manner, where representation is understood as a process through which children store information according to the perceptual analysis of their ingoing experiences (Leslie, 1987; Lyytinen et al., 1997). Play essentially allows children to understand the things they experience and to put these things in to perspective. As such, play is fundamentally important for childrens development (Piaget, 1962). Play is one of the ways in which children understand the world, their interactions with others and the rules and regulations that govern their passage through the world. Play is, thus, a fundamental activity for children that allows them to form their personalities and to understand their place in the world, in relation to others. Relevant of symbolic play in child development Symbolic play, which arises around the age of 18 months, basically involves children substituting one item for another, and can constitute incorporating others in to their play, pretend play or sequencing. This can mean that children pretend to be mother (or father) or that they use household items to reproduce day-to-day activities they have seen their parents doing, amongst other common symbolic play activities. This symbolic allows children to experiment with different roles and different forms of being, which, as has been discussed, allows children to understand, and to contextualise, their experiences. As Piaget (1962) argues, such symbolic play allows children to understand the role of self and others, the use of objects and the sequences of actions and activities whilst playing. This allows children to understand objects, to learn about the properties of objects and to learn about consequences and causality (Piaget, 1962). Play thus allows children, amongst other things, to re alize where their boundaries are, to understand why things work in the ways they do and to understand how to interact with others. Symbolic play is thus, as has been discussed, a fundamental developmental tool for children. Watson and Zlotlow (1999) talk about symbolic play as, an important characteristic of childrens early play, through the enactment of activities that are very familiar to the child in contexts that are not typical for those activities. Enacting activities out of context allows the child to explore, and to understand, the role of agents in their lives, allowing them to understand how the world works and what their role is in this world. Symbolic play, therefore, has been argued to have three main features: the use of objects; the use of actions during the play; and individuals enacting the play (i.e., agents) (Watson and Zlotlow, 1999). The use of objects can be undertaken in many forms, either through substitution, in which the object is used to represent something else, through scenario-building, with the object being used to perform some task or in combination, with the object being used in various ways (Watson, 2008). The use of actions in play and the development of the agent in p lay follow certain patterns depending on the age of the child, as does the theme of childrens symbolic play (Watson, 2008). The one thing that all symbolic play has in common, at whatever age or developmental stage the child is at, is that the child uses some representation of self in their play. At age four, for example, children will have progressed to fantasy play, but these fantasies will usually involve themselves in becoming their fantasy a fireman or a prince, for example (Garvey, 1990). This allows them to explore different roles and responsibilities. Symbolic play is, therefore, a natural phenomena, that children follow naturally, as part of their development through childhood. As Reed (2007) argues, symbolic play links all four areas of a childs development, namely cognitive, language, social/emotional and physical, and, as such, is a fundamental part of the development of children. Symbolic play allows the child to acquire knowledge and to express and represent their ideas, thoughts and feelings: as Vygotsky argues, in his sociocultural cognitive theory, symbolic play allows children to develop and to self-regulate and to work out any problems they might face (Reed, 2007). It is in this aspect, then, that the therapeutic value of symbolic play becomes clear. As children constantly experiment with their environment, their peers and the other agents they meet, and as the results of these experiments are constantly being fed back to lead to reinforce certain behaviours or to elicit different patterns of behaviours, the value of pl ay as therapy is clear. Children who are passing through a difficult moment and who need help to understand this, to contextualise these difficulties in the framework of their existing knowledge, can, through engaging in therapeutic play, manage this. Therapeutic play allows them to experiment with the various outcomes and to contextualise the problems they face, allowing them an opportunity to work through these problems/problematic situations, through this working out their difficulties and coming to understand how to deal with them. The use of symbolic play as therapy In terms of the use of symbolic play as therapy with children, as Bettelheim states, Play permits the child to resolve in symbolic form unresolved problems of the past and to cope directly or symbolically with present concerns. It is also his most significant tool for preparing himself for the future and its tasks (Schaefer, 1995). Using play as a tool to help children through a difficult stage in their lives is, therefore, grounded in theory and makes sense in light of the fact that children learn through play. The research shows, for example, that therapeutic play can be helpful in aiding children through hospital stays (William, 2007) or through surgery, with this therapeutic play being shown to reduce anxiety and increase overall well-being (Bowmer, 2002). As Moore and Russ (2006) discuss, pretend play can act as a resource for children, relating, as it does, to many areas of adaptive functioning including creativity, coping and emotional regulation. As Moore and Russ (2006) show , pretend play in hospital settings can reduce anxiety and, through this, can reduce the likelihood of complications following surgery and can allow children to adapt better to the complications of chronic illness. The therapeutic value of symbolic play In terms of the therapeutic value of symbolic play, as Axline (1964) discusses, therapeutic play can be delivered through one of two major approaches, namely via non-directive play therapy and via directive play therapy (Oaklander, 1988). According to Axline (1964), play therapy should be governed by eight principles, namely that the therapist and child must be comfortable with each other; that the therapist accepts the child as he/she is; that the child can freely express their feelings; that the therapist is alert to the feelings the child expresses; that the therapist respects the child and their ability to resolve their own problems; that the therapist does not attempt to influence the child; that the therapy is carried out in its own time; and that the only limitations placed on the play therapy are those that anchor the therapy in the real world (Axline, 1964). If the therapeutic play is provided within this framework, the benefits of the therapeutic play can be many and varied , as discussed above, with the troubled child benefitting greatly from this intervention. As Li and Lopez (2008) argue, therapeutic play can be valuable not only in helping children through a difficult stage in their lives but can be useful in helping to in prepare children for a stressful, or difficult, period that they might face. For example, children who are facing surgery or a chronic illness can be helped to come to terms with this through the use of therapeutic play. As Li and Lopez (2008) report, by reinforcing to nursing and medical staff that play is a very important part of the lives of young children, and be employing therapeutic play techniques, this can markedly improve the anxiety that these children experience and can allow these children to have a more positive outlook regarding their situation and the difficult things they will face, meaning that they are better equipped to face these situations. As Li and Lopez (2008) argue, therapeutic play can help to improve the resilience of children who face difficulties and, as such, it is an important tool to use in those children who need help to become more resilient. Children who have faced some form of trauma, for example, can be aided through the fallout of this trauma through engaging in therapeutic play. By allowing the child the space to act out what they saw, or what they have experienced, for example, the child can come to terms with this traumatic experience. This therapeutic play could take the form of using puppets, or drawing, or role playing: anything that allows the child to re-enact the event(s) and, through this, come to terms with what happened. The use of therapeutic play in explaining the loss of someone close to them is known to be particularly valuable, for example, as this can allow them to imagine the person is still here and to resolve any outstanding issues they had with them, or to slowly come to terms with the fact that they are no longer alive and no longer able to be physically present with the child. The simple act of playing can, therefore, allow the child to come to terms with many difficult emotions, allowing the c hild to slowly become more able to cope with the negative emotions that a traumatic event (such as witnessing a violent act or the unexpected death of a close family member), allowing them to deal with these negative emotions (Schaefer and OConnor, 1994). As Schaefer and OConnor (1994) argue, role playing in particular can help children to face the negative post-trauma reactions that children might face, with role-play allowing children to relive the trauma and to find various solutions to their negative experiences and emotions. Conclusion In summary, then, this essay has looked at the issue of symbolic play being therapeutic play for children. The essay has looked, in particular, at the theory of symbolic play, the use of symbolic play with children and the therapeutic value of symbolic play. In regards to the theory of symbolic play, it has been seen that various theories have been proposed to explain the importance of symbolic play in childrens development, with all of these theories agreeing that play is a fundamental part of childrens development and that this play allows them to contextualise their experiences and to understand how these experiences dictate how they should act and should behave in different situations. It is this attribute of symbolic play that lends itself to being useful in helping children come to terms with difficult events in their lives: as has been discussed, play allows children to explore different scenarios (even difficult scenarios), with this play enabling them to overcome any negative emotions or feelings they might have had towards these scenarios. A child who is facing a difficult surgery, for example, might be scared, might be worried for themselves and for their families, but engaging in role play with this child (for example) allows them the opportunity to explore different possibilities and to release some of their anxieties and concerns. This has been shown, as discussed, to reduce the anxiety these children feel and to enable the childs health and well-being to be maintained, even under difficult circumstances. Similarly, a child who has experienced trauma can be helped through their post-traumatic period by engaging in some form of therapeutic play. This would normally consist of helping the child to act out their fears and their experiences, allowing the child to get rid of all of their negative emotions and feelings with regards to the even, allowing the child to expel these from their psyche and then to carry on without carrying this burden along with them. In conclusion, then, the essay has shown that play is fundamental for children and that, given its experimental nature and its ability to contextualise events and interactions for children, play is, at its very essence, therapeutic. Using play with children who need therapeutic interventions, then, makes perfect sense to allow children to understand the negative events/emotions and to overcome their fears and anxieties regarding these negative events and emotions. Therapeutic play has been shown to be a useful intervention in many cases, including in hospitalized children and in children living with chronic illnesses, who can be helped through this difficult period by engaging in therapeutic play, which has been shown to reduce their anxiety levels. In conclusion, then, therapeutic play is an extension of the symbolic play that children engage in as a normal developmental process and can be useful in helping children through difficult periods in their life.